Zambia hosted the third conference of heads of states of nonaligned countries more than 50 years ago, in 1970. The world was a different place, in some respects, of course. In others it has remained unchanged. Of the now Brics member countries two were present, as observers or delegates — Brazil as an observer and India as a member country.

The declaration from that conference could have been written today: “... barriers divide countries into developed and the developing, oppressors and the oppressed, the aggressors and the victims of aggression, into those who act from positions of strength, either military or economic and those who are forced to live in the shadow of permanent danger of covert and overt assaults on their independence and security ...”..

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