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Gdansk — Rapid advances in artificial intelligence (AI) such as Microsoft-backed OpenAI’s ChatGPT are complicating governments’ efforts to agree on laws governing the use of the technology.   

Here are the latest steps national and international governing bodies are taking to regulate AI tools:


• Planning regulations. Australia will make search engines draft new codes to prevent the sharing of child sexual abuse material created by AI and the production of deepfake versions of the same material, its internet regulator said in September.


• Planning regulations. Governments and companies need to address the risks of AI head on, Prime Minister Rishi Sunak said on October 26 ahead of the first global AI Safety Summit at Bletchley Park on November 1-2.

Sunak added Britain would set up the world’s first AI safety institute to “understand what each new model is capable of, exploring all the risks from social harms like bias and misinformation through to the most extreme risks”.

Britain’s data watchdog said on October 10 it had issued Snap’s Snapchat with a preliminary enforcement notice over a possible failure to properly assess the privacy risks of its generative AI chatbot to users, particularly children.


• Implemented temporary regulations. China published proposed security requirements for firms offering services powered by generative AI on October 12, including a blacklist of sources that cannot be used to train AI models.

The country issued a set of temporary measures in August, requiring service providers to submit security assessments and receive clearance before releasing mass-market AI products.


• Planning regulations. European legislators agreed on October 24 on a critical part of new AI rules outlining the types of systems that will be designated “high risk”, and inched closer to a broader agreement on the landmark AI Act, according to five people familiar with the matter. An agreement is expected in December, two co-rapporteurs said.

European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen on September 13 called for a global panel to assess the risks and benefits of AI.


• Investigating possible breaches. France’s privacy watchdog said in April it was investigating complaints about ChatGPT.


• Seeking input on regulations. The Group of Seven (G7) countries agreed on October 30 to an 11-point code of conduct for firms developing advanced AI systems, which “aims to promote safe, secure, and trustworthy AI worldwide”. G7 leaders had in May called for the development and adoption of technical standards to keep AI “trustworthy” at a ministerial forum dubbed the “Hiroshima AI process”.


• Investigating possible breaches. Italy’s data protection authority plans to review AI platforms and hire experts in the field, a top official said in May. ChatGPT was temporarily banned in the country in March, but it was made available again in April.


• Investigating possible breaches. Japan expects to introduce by the end of 2023 regulations that are likely closer to the US attitude than the stringent ones planned in the EU, an official close to deliberations said in July. The country’s privacy watchdog has warned OpenAI not to collect sensitive data without people’s permission.


• Investigating possible breaches. Poland’s personal data protection office said on September 21 it is investigating OpenAI over a complaint that ChatGPT breaks EU data protection laws.


• Investigating possible breaches. Spain’s data protection agency in April launched a preliminary investigation into potential data breaches by ChatGPT.


• Planning regulations. UN secretary-general António Guterres on October 26 announced the creation of a 39-member advisory body, composed of tech company executives, government officials and academics, to address issues in the international governance of AI. The UN Security Council held its first formal discussion on AI in July, addressing military and non-military applications of AI that “could have very serious consequences for global peace and security”, Guterres said at the time.


• Seeking input on regulations. President Joe Biden issued a new executive order on October 30 to require developers of AI systems that pose risks to US national security, the economy, public health or safety to share the results of safety tests with the government.

The US Congress in September held hearings on AI and an AI forum featuring Meta CEO Mark Zuckerberg and Tesla CEO Elon Musk. More than 60 senators took part in the talks, during which Musk called for a US “referee” for AI. Legislators said there is universal agreement about the need for government regulation of the technology.

On September 12, the White House said Adobe, IBM , Nvidia and five other firms have signed Biden’s voluntary commitments governing AI, which require steps such as watermarking AI-generated content.

A Washington DC district judge ruled in August that a work of art created by AI without any human input cannot be copyrighted under US law.

The US Federal Trade Commission opened in July an investigation into OpenAI on claims that it has run afoul of consumer protection laws.


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