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During the debate on his state of the nation address, President Cyril Ramaphosa defended himself against criticism that he had no plan except hold summits and consultations. He hit back by insisting that he did have a plan, in the National Development Plan (NDP). One can easily appreciate that by referencing this budget. Each budget must be evaluated against the message and policy intentions of a government. Finance Minister Malusi Gigaba’s budget went a long way to give credence to Ramaphosa’s vision, only falling short perhaps in rectifying the "original sin". Atonement for the original sin, as described by Ramaphosa in his state of the nation debate, will require measures far beyond the return of land or the pennies people have been given. In being dispossessed, the indigenous people lost more than just land. They also lost the capacity and expertise to work such land, and advance within this area of economic activity over time. Further, the economy as a whole lost a competitive ...

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