Paramedics transport a patient to Mount Sinai Hospital as the city enters the first day of a new Covid-19 lockdown due to a spike in cases in Toronto, Canada. Picture: REUTERS/CARLOS OSORIO
Paramedics transport a patient to Mount Sinai Hospital as the city enters the first day of a new Covid-19 lockdown due to a spike in cases in Toronto, Canada. Picture: REUTERS/CARLOS OSORIO

Toronto — Canada deported thousands of people even as Covid-19 raged last year, data shows, and lawyers say deportations are ramping up, putting people needlessly at risk in the midst of a global health emergency.

Like many other countries, Canada is struggling to stop a new wave from spiraling out of control, and its political leaders are begging residents to stay home to prevent the spread.

Lawyers and human rights advocates are decrying Canada’s November decision to resume deportations. Until now, the extent of the country’s pandemic deportations was not known, but recent interviews with immigration lawyers and scrutiny of government numbers has shed light on the situation.

Canada counted 12,122 people as removed in 2020 — 875 more than 2019 and the highest number since at least 2015, according to Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) data. The government says this was necessary and done safely.

The CBSA says the high number in 2020 is because it includes people who decided to leave on their own, termed “administrative removals”. In 2019, there were 1,657 administrative removals, compared with 8,215 in 2020.

Even subtracting those numbers, it leaves thousands of people deported as the pandemic raged and governments cautioned against travel of any kind for safety reasons. Even as Canada continues to deport non-citizens during a health crisis, US President Joe Biden paused deportations for 100 days within hours of being sworn in on Wednesday.

Canada officially imposed a moratorium on deportations in March that it lifted at the end of November 2020.

“As much as a human rights concern, it’s a common sense concern,” said Bill Frelick, director of Human Rights Watch’s refugee rights programme.

Countries’ deportation practices have varied over the course of the pandemic. Several, including the UK, suspended deportations before resuming them. Others, such as Ireland, have kept suspensions in place.

The CBSA said it has been prioritising deportations for reasons of “serious admissibility”, including criminality. The vast majority of people deported in 2020 were for reasons of “non-compliance”.

Even taking into account administrative removals, more than 1,000 people were deported during the suspension, the data shows.

‘It’s unbelievable’

Public health experts have warned that travel of any kind can spread Covid-19, a risk that grows with the advent of more highly transmissible virus variants.

Many of the deportation trips involve transfers at multiple airports and flights during which people are placed in an enclosed space in close quarters with other people for hours at a time, a situation ripe for transmission.

Since August, Canada has been conducting deportations with CBSA escorts, so Canadians are also making thousands of these round-trip flights for deportation purposes.

Organisations, including the Canadian Bar Association and the Canadian Association of Refugee Lawyers spoke out against Canada’s decision to resume deportations.

“As everybody is putting in place more restrictions in an effort to flatten the curve ... CBSA made a shocking decision to simply go back to business as usual,” said Maureen Silcoff, president of the Canadian Association of Refugee Lawyers. “Canada has taken the position that non-essential travel is barred yet people are now being removed and there’s no indication that those removals are essential.”

The CBSA said in a statement that it lifted the moratorium on deportations because foreign government offices and borders had reopened, airlines restarted their routes and public-health protocols “contributed to a high degree of safety for people being removed by air”.

“Canada continues to uphold both its human rights and public safety obligations in relation to the removal of inadmissible foreign nationals,” the statement said. “The removal process includes many checks and balances to ensure the removal is conducted in a fair and just manner.”

However, these deportations are endangering not only the people being deported but the government officers tasked with accompanying them to their destination, lawyers say.

Immigration lawyer Lorne Waldman’s Toronto office went from getting no removal cases to getting three or four in the space of a week, he said. He is now fighting for a failed refugee claimant with two young Canadian children who faces deportation to Egypt on Monday. “They’re ramping it up as if there was no pandemic,” he said. “It’s unbelievable.”


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