Former French president François Mitterrand noted prophetically in 1957: “Without Africa, France will no longer have a history in the 21st century.”

For the past six decades an intricate network of political, military, economic and cultural ties — known as Françafrique — have been used to promote what French leaders regarded as a politique de grandeur. All French presidents from Charles de Gaulle to Emmauel Macron have continued this neocolonial Africa policy...

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