Surrounded by a crop of wilting sugar beans, Georginah Sidumo rubs red dust off a folder of documents she says are the only proof her farmers’ co-operative has the right to work on the land it controls. Sidumo, 47, is one of thousands of black South African subsistence farmers frustrated by faltering efforts to reform land policies shaped by centuries of white rule. Government programmes meant to turn small black-owned operations such as hers into sustained, mid-sized agricultural businesses are well-intentioned but too slow, she says.

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