In winter, the average temperature in the northern Siberian settlement of Kharp ranges between -20°C and -30°C. From the cell in the “Polar Wolf” penal colony where Alexei Navalny was kept in solitary confinement, all he could see was a tall fence. He would not even have been able to see the sky.

In winter, prisoners are tortured by being forced to stand still in the freezing temperatures wearing light clothing. If even one prisoner moves, everyone is doused with a water cannon. Beatings, humiliation and electric shocks are common methods of torture in one of Russia’s most remote prisons. ..

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