Each year presents new lessons, and 2016 was no different. The turbulence of economies and the unpredictability of politics were apparent not only in SA but also globally. One could argue that the current tough economic climate mirrors the aftermath of the 2009 recession and yet, surprisingly, marketers appear to be reluctant to adjust their strategies to appeal to a more cautious consumer. Society is becoming increasingly distrustful of political leadership. This is being manifested in the rise of populism in the US, triggered by the presidency of Donald Trump, and locally in the rise of civic activism fuelled by frustration in the absence of equal opportunities for all. The latter is demonstrated in the “fees must fall” protests and the escalating land repatriation debate. The increasing suspicion is not only seen in protests against governments, but has also trickled down to consumers’ interactions with brands. The “foresight effect”, examined by Olega Urminsky and Adelle X Yang ...

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