A more than 365 year history of colonialism and apartheid have indelibly affected land, heritage and human rights in South Africa. Among the vast array of discriminatory laws was the Land Act of 1913that spatially segregated people through land dispossession. It amplified the vast canyon of inequality, further shattered the social fabric of communities and radically compromised economic development of the black majority. It was only after the 1994 democratic elections that the vast majority of citizens could hope for constitutional restitution of their land. Significant socio-economic advances have been made since 1994, but several challenges need to be overcome as indicated by recent trends. Much more needs to be done. This is particularly true when it comes to land distribution and restitution. The 2013 state land audit report illustrates why. By 1994 about 87% of the land was owned by whites and only 13% by black people. By 2012 only 7.95 million hectares had been transferred to ...

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