Caster Semenya was, quite simply, born to run. The Olympic 800m champion has been breaking middle-distance records since her debut at the Africa Junior Championships in 2009. But on May 1, the Court of Arbitration for Sport ruled that her biology accords her an unfair advantage. Semenya, who was born with a difference in sexual development (DSD) that leads to exceptionally high levels of testosterone, will no longer be allowed to compete at distances between 400m and 1,600m without taking hormone-suppressing medication beforehand. The decision vindicates the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), which pushed for the cap on testosterone levels, but has fuelled accusations of discrimination. Billie Jean King, the former tennis champion, railed on Twitter that Semenya was being denied the opportunity to run as her “authentic self”. The case is an explosive mix of issues: fairness in sport; what is “natural”; where does an athlete with DSD slot into the binary categ...

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