China has spent the past decade notching up firsts — world’s largest manufacturer, world’s largest exporter, world’s largest foreign reserves, world’s largest market for vehicles. In 2014, the International Monetary Fund even reported that, ranked by purchasing power, China is the world’s largest economy. But there is one "world’s largest" title that China may have lost. New demographic research suggests that India, not China, could be the most populous country in the world — with unofficial estimates of China’s population revised down to just less than 1.3-billion, compared with India’s population of 1.33-billion. This news could feed the growing sense in India that, while the rise of China has been the global story of the past 30 years, the next 30 will be India’s time to shine. Population trends in India certainly look more favourable for long-term economic growth than those in China. It’s not just that India’s population may have surpassed that of China and will grow faster in f...

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