The European Commission concluded a seven-year long investigation a few months ago, which found that Google had rigged its search algorithm to put its own shopping results at the top of the general search listings and to lower artificially the placement of rival sites in the search rankings. The commission fined Google €2.4bn for its past misconduct and ordered it to correct its future behaviour or face additional fines. It ruled that Google, as a dominant company in general search, must provide "equal treatment" to rival comparison shopping sites. Google’s main rivals in comparison shopping all use the same business model. They list merchants on their sites in various ways, including lowest price, and charge merchants a fixed fee for user clicks they receive. Google’s shopping service used to include merchants without charge and list them by lowest price. But starting in 2013 it switched to only showing ads and started requiring merchants to bid against each other for the best plac...

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