The abandoned Mintails gold mining operations in Krugersdorp are a hive of activity on a Monday morning as illegal miners, known as zama zamas, get to work. Three men walk purposefully down the road, equipped with headlamps and hessian sacks; they smile and greet. They say they are from Mozambique.

Across the way, another group of men are digging with pickaxes. "It’s only to get bread," one miner says. "The gold here is too small."..

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