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Ethical or responsible investing is often considered to have emerged from the 1980s campaigns for divestment from corporations operating in apartheid SA. However, the concept has much older, and strongly religious, origins.

In biblical times, the Jewish concept of tzedek (justice and equity) — applicable to all aspects of life, including the economy — was aimed at correcting the disruption that humans cause to the natural world. Ownership brought with it both rights and responsibilities, and these responsibilities included the prevention of immediate and potential harm...

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