It is no longer news that disruptive technologies will be the driving force behind the fourth industrial revolution. In fact, it sounds clichéd to even talk about how the world of work is in a profound state of flux, relentlessly interspersed with major disruptions, and that these developments are shifting business models in all sectors, increasing the pace of change in job destruction and job creation. The reality is that the estimate of global economic returns on this revolution is $16-trillion. Given the sluggish growth in the global economy and recent threats of trade wars among major economies, this projection is big news. However, given the scale of investment in programmes to prepare students for employability, "graduates will need sufficient skills to ‘de-risk’ new enterprise development initiatives in Africa", as African Development Bank president Akinwumi Adesina said. A cursory glance at the history of global economic development shows us that these revolutions have alway...

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