The next UK government will find it difficult to encourage civil servants and businesses to prepare for a no-deal Brexit in 2020 after "crying wolf" no fewer than three times this year, Whitehall and industry figures warned.

As the latest Brexit deadline of October 31 passed without taking effect after the EU agreed to extend the UK's membership until January 31, officials and business leaders said there was a limit to how often the UK could prepare for a no-deal departure.

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