Regulators plan ‘conservative’ bitcoin capital rule
Basel Committee wants banks to provide full cover for losses in holdings of cryptocurrencies
London — Banks must set aside enough capital to cover losses on any bitcoin holdings in full, global regulators proposed on Thursday, in a “conservative” step that could prevent extensive use of the cryptocurrency by big lenders.
The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, comprising regulators from the world’s leading financial centres, proposed a twin approach to capital requirements for cryptoassets held by banks in its first bespoke rule for the nascent sector.
El Salvador has become the world’s first country to adopt bitcoin as legal tender even though central banks globally have repeatedly warned that investors in the cryptocurrency must be ready to lose all their money.
Major economies including China and the US have signalled a tougher approach in recent weeks and are drafting plans to develop their own central bank digital currencies.
The Swiss-based Basel committee said in a consultation paper that while bank exposures to cryptoassets are limited, their continued growth could increase risks to global financial stability as a result of fraud, cyberattacks, money-laundering and terrorist finance if capital requirements aren’t introduced.
Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are worth about $1.6-trillion globally, which is still tiny compared with bank holdings of loans, derivatives and other major assets.
Basel’s rules require banks to assign "risk weightings" to different types of assets on their books, with these totted up to determine overall capital requirements.
For cryptoassets, Basel is proposing two broad groups. The first includes certain tokenised traditional assets and stablecoins which would come under existing rules and be treated in the same way as bonds, loans, deposits, equities or commodities.
This means the weighting could range from 0% for a tokenised sovereign bond to 1,250% or full value of the asset covered by capital.
The value of stablecoins and other group 1 cryptoassets are tied to a traditional asset, such as the dollar in the case of Facebook’s proposed Diem stablecoin.
Nevertheless, given that cryptoassets are based on new and rapidly evolving technology such as blockchain, this poses a potentially increased likelihood of operational risks which need an “add-on” capital charge for all types, Basel said.
The second group includes cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin that would be subject to a new “conservative prudential treatment” with a risk weighting of 1,250% because of their “unique risks” in that aren’t linked to any underlying asset.
Under Basel rules, a 1,250% risk weight translates into banks having to hold capital at least equal in value to their exposures to bitcoin or other group 2 cryptoassets.
“The capital will be sufficient to absorb a full write-off of the cryptoasset exposures without exposing depositors and other senior creditors of the banks to a loss,” it added.
A global regulatory framework for cryptoassets is a positive, given that banks in Europe are divided on involvement in the sector, said Joseph Edwards, the head of research at crypto brokerage Enigma Securities.
“If something is to be treated as an universal asset, it effectively needs to meet quorum with regards to how many parties will handle it,” he said. “This should move the needle somewhat.”
Bitcoin gained after Basel’s announcement, trading 1.5% higher at $37,962 at 10.53am GMT.
Few other assets have such conservative treatment under Basel’s existing rules. They include investments in funds or securitizations where banks do not have sufficient information about their underlying exposures.
The value of bitcoin has swung wildly, hitting a record high of around $64,895 in mid-April, before slumping to $36,834 before the Basel announcement.
Banks’ appetite for cryptocurrencies varies, with HSBC saying it has no plans for a cryptocurrency trading desk because the digital coins are too volatile. Goldman Sachs restarted its crypto trading desk in March.
Basel said that given the rapidly evolving nature of cryptoassets, a further public consultation on capital requirements is likely before final rules are published.
Central bank digital currencies are not included in its proposals.
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