Kariba dam. Picture: GETTY IMAGES/DEAGOSTINI
Kariba dam. Picture: GETTY IMAGES/DEAGOSTINI

Maputo/Lusaka— Drought-riven Zambia plans to build canals from the Congo river in its northern neighbour to supply water and electricity. It will never work, say experts.

Water levels have plunged for the second time in three years in the Kariba dam, which feeds off the Zambezi river and provides both Zambia and Zimbabwe with electricity. That’s sparked fears that the two nation’s hydropower turbines may have to switch off completely if levels continue to fall at what is the world’s biggest freshwater reservoir.

The Congo river in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the continent’s second longest, could hold the solution, according to Matthew Nkhuwa, Zambia’s energy minister.

“We are looking at the possibilities of tapping water from the Congo river to the source of the Zambezi,” Nkhuwa said by phone from Lusaka. “If we can just dig canals and get the water from there, with the permission from the head of state of the DRC, it will benefit both Zambia and it will also benefit Zimbabwe.”

Experts are sceptical. Even if the heads of state of the three countries agree to the idea, the plan will probably never be realizsed, according to Arthur Chapman, associate at Stellenbosch University’s institute for futures research.

While the Zambezi’s source, which lies in the far north-west corner of Zambia, is almost on the border with the DRC, it’s still more than 100km from the Congo river.

‘Not feasible’

The Zambezi is also more elevated than the Congo river, said Chapman, a hydrologist who’s published a study on the impact of climate change on the Zambezi’s hydropower production.

“Canals are absolutely not feasible. I have no idea what the relevant minister could be thinking,” he said in reply to e-mailed questions. “There are no places in which one could get the Congo river to flow downhill.”

Large parts of the Zambezi’s catchment area in southern and western Zambia received their lowest rainfall since at least 1981 during the 2018/2019 wet season, according to SADC. Kariba’s water level has dropped to 22% of capacity, from 84% a year ago.

It’s the second severe drought this decade to hit Kariba’s electricity production, with the dam falling to 11% of capacity three years ago. The government has blamed climate change for the lack of rain, which also hurt farming output. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) cited the drought as a reason for cutting its economic growth forecast for Zambia to 2% this year, the lowest this millennium.

Nkhuwa is optimistic that the proposed canals from the Congo will be built. “We think this is something that can be done very very quickly, and at a cheaper price than having to put up a power plant,” he said, without giving an estimate as to how much the undertaking may cost. “I think that can be achieved within two, three months.”

Bloomberg