Washington — An estimated 2-million cyber attacks in 2018 resulted in more than $45bn in losses as city councils worldwide struggled with ransomware and other malicious incidents.

The Internet Society's Online Trust Alliance, compiling data from the US and international sources, said other important losses came from fraudulent takeover of business e-mail credentials as well as cyptojacking, or hijacking a computer or network, to generate bitcoin or other virtual currency.

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