London — Two years after 200 or so nations forged a new UN deal to protect the climate, output of the gases blamed for global warming surged to a record. Carbon dioxide emissions from energy use climbed 1.6% in 2017, with both emerging and developed economies contributing to the increase, according to BP data published on Wednesday. In the US, which intends to withdraw from the UN’s Paris accord, greenhouse-gas output fell for a third year. Emissions are rising in the run-up to the 2020 start of the Paris deal, which pushed all countries, rich and poor, to make reductions in fossil-fuel use. As emerging-nation economic growth accelerates, countries remain divided about who should finance projects to limit pollution and how deep national pledges should go. The biggest advances in emissions were in emerging nations, with a 4.4% jump in India and a 1.6% gain in China. Carbon dioxide output also rose in Brazil, Qatar and Russia, while Turkey’s jumped by 13%. In the EU, home to the world...

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