SA’s agricultural exports lack sufficient diversification. Outside the African continent, they are heavily concentrated in a few Asian countries and the EU. Export diversification contributes to a country’s economic resilience, especially in the face of disruptions to global supply chains or if one of the major markets imposes non-tariff barriers to protect its producers from competition.

Recently we have seen how the Covid-19 pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine war destabilised global supply chains, with many countries looking inward for long-term security of supply. The pandemic and geopolitical friction have also increased protectionism, especially in the EU...

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