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Nearly three decades after the advent of democracy in SA it is clear that high levels of xenophobia are baked in and permanent. For as long as SA survives, so will the widespread hatred of Africans from other countries.

Few predicted this in 1994. Back then, generosity towards other Africans appeared to be part of our national spirit. South Africans were conscious, after all, that our neighbours had helped make freedom possible. So how did xenophobia become intractable?..

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