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With African sovereign foreign currency denominated debt having surpassed $1-trillion, and with only 10% of Africans having been fully vaccinated against Covid-19, conflicts will continue in Central Africa and across the drought-affected Sahel, while coups d’état seem set to proliferate across West Africa.

Russia will continue to use mercenaries to challenge France in its self-declared chasse gardée (private hunting ground). China will continue to invest heavily in raw materials and minerals, remaining the continent’s largest trading partner at $254bn a year. The global prices of African metals, minerals, hydrocarbons, and food are also expected to rise. ..

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