President Cyril Ramaphosa has a year to decide whether to implement a basic income grant (BIG). In the 2022 budget, finance minister Enoch Godongwana will extend the grant at an annual cost of R40bn. The government will then have to make a final decision before the 2023 budget.

As former public protector Thuli Madonsela says: “Ultimately it will depend on whether the president only listens to libertarian orthodox economists or also listens to development economists and common sense.”  ..

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