Covid vaccine mandates are a heated topic in countries in which most of the adult population is vaccinated. France President Emmanuel Macron faced protests when he introduced a vaccine passport scheme, which limited access to public venues, including restaurants, bars and museums, and imposed vaccine obligations on public-facing employees.

This week the Italian government decided to go further, making the EU’s Covid-19 “green pass” mandatory for all non-exempted public and private sector workers. Securing a pass, already required across much of the EU to access hospitality and leisure facilities, requires vaccination, recent recovery from Covid, or a negative test result...

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