The Covid-19 pandemic has spared no economy globally, but emerging markets have been hit hardest as investors seek a safe haven in the greenback. The SA, Mexican, Brazilian and Russian currencies have each depreciated by about 20% since the start of 2020.

The SA government, its agencies, the civil service, labour and business have all thrown their weight at the challenges the country faces. An opportunity, therefore, exists to explore how expectancy value theory can be applied to an economic planning framework to deal with the health, financial and economic crises the country is experiencing due to the pandemic...

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