When he was voted out of office in 1951, British prime minister Clement Attlee was regarded by his party as having largely failed.

Labour had come to power under his leadership in 1945 on the promise that it would make a new socialist order, largely through wide-scale nationalisation. Once it became clear that even as radical a project as public ownership would leave the class structure of the country the same, disenchantment swept through the party.

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