Whether artificial intelligence (AI) will outperform humans remains to be seen. AI continues to become more sophisticated and complex, but so do the markets. That leaves technology and investment authorities debating the role of AI in managing portfolios.

The optimum solution might lie in the combination of man and machine. A concept that now goes by the name of collaborative robotics was best encapsulated by MIT economics professor Richard Bookstaber when he said: "No man is better than a machine, and no machine is better than a man with a machine."

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