Three months ago, in preparation for the World Economic Forum in Davos, Klaus Schwab wrote about the challenges facing the world as it seeks to embrace globalisation 4.0 and the fourth industrial revolution. In trying to make a case for globalisation in a world that is increasingly retreating towards closed borders under the guise of the pursuit of sovereignty, Schwab makes an important distinction between globalisation and globalism. Globalisation refers to the integration of economies and industries, underpinned by technology and the movement of ideas, goods and people. Globalism, however, relates to the idea that within a globalised world the formulation of policy should have the well-being of the world at large rather than an individual nation at its epicentre. Such an idea creates natural tensions when the level of discontent within a country leads its citizens to view globalisation as a construct designed by the elites to elevate global desires over national interests. In the ...

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