Environmental stewardship, one of the themes of the World Economic Forum on Africa in in Cape Town this week, is not usually associated with the extractive industries.

However, that perception is incorrect. Metals and minerals are integral to all renewable energy technologies. Some of them are relatively easy to recycle, making them eminently suitable for a circular economy. A circular economy, in which as much material as possible is re-used rather than discarded to minimise waste, is the model to which all countries should aspire for their long-term future.

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