One of the earliest reported townships in SA was Uitvlugt (later renamed Ndabeni) near modern-day Pinelands, Cape Town, where up to 7,000 black people were settled next to a sewerage plant in 1902 after being forcibly removed from in and around the city centre.

KwaLanga was established more than two decades later following the passage of the 1923 Native (Urban Areas) Act, which formally restricted black people’s access to the city. These forced removals inspired subsequent segregation laws and apartheid spatial planning, which still dominates SA cities more than 25 years after it was formally ended.

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