Until recently, the National Development Plan (NDP) was revered in public discourse and a means by which many government departments set targets. For example, as of 2016 the department of higher education allocated scholarships according to the NDP’s injunction to produce PhDs to transform SA into a knowledge-intensive economy. Business Day columnist Tony Leon has observed that by proposing to amend the constitution on land expropriation, President Cyril Ramaphosa has contravened the NDP’s principles. What has not been noted is that the NDP is no longer applicable. I’ll summarise why and propose a solution. Cycle 1 is taken from the NDP’s overview and summarises its underlying strategy. Its key drivers are depicted as central cogs. These generate a "virtuous cycle" supporting the economic model favoured by prior ANC governments, "trickle down with growth". To derive that cycle, one interprets "active citizenry" as businesses engaging in BEE, while "effective" governance implies both...

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