Although gender equality is an age-old discussion, it remains a controversial topic. Two prominent researchers in the field, Ronald Burke and Susan Vinnicombe, argue that gender has become a "business issue" rather than merely a "woman’s issue". Given increasing competition for a limited talent pool, the quality of a company’s human capital could be a competitive advantage. The gender composition of boards and top management therefore increasingly gain attention from policy makers, the media and researchers. International and local statistics, however, show that less than 20% of directors are females. In 2007, two US researchers, Alice Eagly and Linda Carli, argued that the glass ceiling metaphor was no longer apt in the 21st century. They said women were not challenged by one obstacle, but encounter several difficulties to advance their careers. They proposed an alternative metaphor of a labyrinth as women are confronted by work-life balance issues, discrimination at work and preju...

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