In 2015, two pivotal events took place: the UN endorsed the Sustainable Development Goals and 195 countries signed the most far-reaching climate agreement to date. With pressure on limited resources and the effects of climate change increasingly being felt, there is a clear desire to reduce dependency. This is where the idea of a circular economy finds its place. A circular economy seeks to optimise the value of materials, components and products throughout their lifetime and relies on strategies that reduce the use of virgin resource inputs and nonrenewable resources; cycle and recycle wastes and by-products in industry chains; and extend the lifetime of products and assets to maximise their value. It mimics natural systems, in which all materials are continuously cycled. This will require a systemic change and institutional strategy. Circular economy actors need to collaborate with governments, customers and industry chains to create joint value and to innovate using new business ...

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