Progress is being made but usually only where state business is involved The success of the black economic empowerment (BEE) charters has been a mixed bag, with progress in some sectors and stalled processes in others. Of the nine industries that have published transformation charters, only five are truly active. The effectiveness of the charters depends largely on the industry's reliance on the public sector, either for government contracts or for operating licences. But there's also confusion about a charter versus the objectives of these codes, published in 2009 following the launch of the generic codes of good practice in 2007. The words "charter" and "code" are often used interchangeably. But, strictly speaking, a transformation charter becomes a sector code only once it becomes legally binding, or gazetted under section 9-1 of the act .The core elements of each charter are taken from the broad-based black economic empowerment codes of good conduct, but the de...

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